4. Aztec Art:
Tribe of humble and dark nomadic origins, the Aztec people included some ethnic groups of central Mexico who particularly spoke the Nahuatl language and who ruled large extensions of Mesoamerica between the XIV and the XV centuries. The word “Aztec” is used to refer to several ethnic groups that claim heritage from their mythic place of origin called Aztlan. In the Nahuatl language, “aztecatl” means “person from Aztlan”. These “people from Aztlan” included the Mexica people of Tenochtitlan (nowadays the location of Mexico City) from an island in Lake Texcoco, and its two principal allied city-states, the Acolhuas (also from Texcoco) and the Tepanecs of Tlacopan, who together with the Mexica formed the Aztec Triple Alliance that controlled what is known as the “Aztec Empire”. The modern use of the word “Aztec” was coined in 1810 by Alexander von Humboldt to refer to all the people related to the Mexica state and the Triple Alliance.
The Aztecs settled definitively in 1325 in some islets of what it was the lake Texoco in the valley of Mexico. With unlimited tenacity, they transformed these marshy islets into one of the most extraordinary cities of pre-Columbian America: Mexico-Tenochtitlan, a unique lacustrine city with ingenious “chinampas*” or floating islands, different networks of canals and roads, dykes and aqueducts, an unparalleled market (the ancient Tlatelolco’s market), and an imposing ceremonial center, whose main pyramid had a double temple (Templo Mayor, which occupied what is today the Historic Center of Mexico City) built following the style of those of the Chichimeca peoples: one dedicated to Tláloc and one to Huitzilopochtli.
Then, around 1428 by means of an alliance with two riverside towns (the Acolhuas and the Tepanecs mentioned before) known as the Aztec Triple Alliance, the Aztecs began to display their exceptional warrior abilities and their desire to triumph at all costs, for they considered themselves as the “people of the Sun”, the people chosen by their tribal god Huitzilopochtli, god of the sun and war. Confident in their glorious destiny, in less than a century they dominated a considerable territory, channeling all the wealth of the nearby country towards its beautiful capital. And endowed with an unusual capacity to assimilate foreign cultures, they adapted diverse expressions and artistic techniques into a fantastic artistic synthesis while at the same time they erased cultural boundaries, so that, at the arrival of the Spanish conquerors, the fame of Mexico-Tenochtitlán had almost completely eclipsed the memory of other splendid past Mesoamerican cultures.
The art that was found in Mexico-Tenochtitlán on the eve of the Spanish conquest reflects the high degree of refinement that the Aztecs had achieved in the curse of a few generations: delicate wood or bone carvings, fine inlaids using turquoise, shell and other materials, elaborate jewels in gold and silver, iridescent mosaics of feathers with harmoniously combined colors (a typically indigenous technique that only survived for a brief time after the conquest…). And if many of these objects were elaborated by towns ruled by the Aztec Empire, an art specifically dominated and mastered by the Aztecs was the sculpture in stone, both for its plastic strength and spirit.
Not satisfied with repeating the traditional themes of the traditional artistic repertoire then existing in the Mexican plateau, the Aztec artists undertook the task of “re-discovering” the world around them and thus created sculptural forms appropriate to their peculiar vision of the universe as mystical-warriors. In addition, their pride and manly temper led them instinctively to choose the hardest stones to work with.
Some of the creations of the Aztec statuary stand out for their vigor and the economy of their forms. Such is the case of numerous male statues, whether they be a simple plebeian, the masterful head of the “Eagle Warrior” (called “cuāuhtli*“), a priest of the skinned god Xipe Tótec – covered with the skin of a sacrificial – or some deity as Xochipilli (the “prince of flowers”), god of joy, music and dance. But one of the favorite subjects of the Aztec sculptors was the portrayal of animals (toads, snakes, monkeys, felines…). And for the first time in the history of Mesoamerican art, mythological animals like the “feathered coyote” (“Huehuecóyotl“), the “Xiuhcoatl” or the “fire serpent”, or the millenary “feathered serpent” seem to come to life.
It is undoubtedly that was in the “official” monumental sculpture where Aztec artists reached their greatest artistic expressions. Aware of their role as “people of the Sun,” they transformed a commemorative monument as was the “stone of Tizoc” (which tells the story of a king’s victories) in an event that transcended the historical events per se by involving gods and planets in the story telling. And they made of the “stone of the Sun” (or Aztec calendar stone) not only a colossal and superb stone relief, but a true compendium of their deep cosmological beliefs. Finally, the great representation of Coatlicue shows us the goddess of the earth, the mother earth, as the deity who gives us sustenance but that later can also devour us, a fecundating and destructive element at the same time. Coatlicue concentrated an infinity of symbols and gathered them under a monstrous appearance. However, there’s no cruelty in her, nor goodness: it’s only the manifestation of a crude reality.
Chīmalli: (from the Nahuatl, meaning “shield”). The traditional defensive armament of the indigenous tribes of Mexico. These shields varied in design and purpose.
Chinampas: A type of Mesoamerican agriculture which used small, rectangular areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico. Chinampas were created by the freshwater shoreline of the Northern portion of the central lake system of Mexico by the Nahua peoples, commonly called the Aztecs. Chinampas thus were artificial islands that were created by building up extensions of soil into bodies of water.
Cuāuhtli: (from the Nahuatl). Also known as Eagle warriors or Eagle knights. They were a special class of infantry soldier in the Aztec army, one of the two leading military orders in Aztec society. These military orders, along with the jaguar warriors (or ocēlōtl), were made up of the bravest soldiers of noble birth and those who had taken the greatest number of prisoners in battle. Of all of the Aztec warriors, they were the most feared. The eagles were soldiers of the Sun, for the eagle was the symbol of the Sun.
Labret: A form of body piercing involving any type of adornment that is attached to the lip (labrum in Latin).
Tecpatl: In the Aztec culture, Tecpatl was a flint or obsidian knife with a lanceolate figure and double-edged blade, with elongated ends. It can be represented with the top half red, reminiscent of the color of blood, in representations of human sacrifice and the rest white, indicating the color of the flint blade. The Tecpatl knife was traditionally used for human sacrifice by the Aztecs, but it also was the short-range weapon of the jaguar warriors.
Teponaztli: A type of slit drum used in central Mexico by the Aztecs and related cultures. Teponaztli were made of hollow hardwood logs. Like most slit drums, teponaztlis have two slits on their topside, cut into the shape of an “H”. The resultant strips are then struck with rubber-head wood mallets, or with deer antlers. Since the tongues are of different lengths, or carved into different thicknesses, the teponaztli produces 2 different pitches. Teponaztli were usually decorated with relief carvings of various deities or with abstract designs, and were even carved into the shapes of creatures or humans.